PROC. BIOL. SOC. WASH. 107(4), 1994, pp. 600-608 RESURRECTION OF GLYPHOHESIONE FRIEDRICH, 1950, WITH REDESCRIPTION OF G. KLATTI FRIEDRICH, 1950 AND DESCRIPTION OF G. LONGOCIRRATA (POLYCHAETA: HESIONIDAE) Frank Licher Abstract.— The. formerly monotypic genus Glyphohesione Friedrich, 1950 is removed from synonymy with Synelmis Chamberlin, 1919 and emended. The type species, G. klatti Friedrich, 1950, from northern European waters, is redescribed, and G. longocirrata, a new species from the east coast of North America, is described. Glyphohesione is transferred from the Pilargidae to the Hesionidae, where it was originally placed, as the pilargid stem-species might have evolved from a hesionid species by progenesis. Friedrich ( 1 950) described the monotypic Glyphohesione klatti from Helgoland and recognized it as a hesionid. Eliason (1962a, 1962b), who reported the species from the Skagerrak and Oresund, considered it to be a pilargid belonging to the genus Ancistro-syllis Mcintosh, 1879. Pettibone (1966) transferred it to the pilargid genus Synelmis Chamberlin, 1919. Comparison of brain morphology of different pilargid genera caused Fitzhugh & Wolf (1990) to doubt that specimens identified as Synelmis klatti in the collection of the U.S. National Mu-seum, Washington, belong to this genus, and they suggested resurrecting the older taxon Glyphohesione for them. In a phylogenetic analysis of the Pilargidae (note: the correct spelling is Pilargidae, not Pilargiidae (see: International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1985): International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, art. 35 d (ii))), Licher & Westheide (1994) argued that the species of this family might form a mono-phyletic group within the Hesionidae. A subfamily Pilarginae beside the "Hesioni-nae" Hartmann-Schroder, 1971 and "Mi-crophthalminae" Hartmann-Schroder, 1971 should not be erected until a comprehensive revision of the Hesionidae including pilar-gids has been made of the "true" hesionid taxa and is beyond the scope of the present study. The "Hesioninae" as well as the for-mer "Hesionidae" ("Hesioninae" + "Mi-crophthalminae") are very likely paraphy-letic (Licher & Westheide 1994). The "Microphthalminae" represents a polyphy-letic group (Westheide 1977). Reinvestiga-tion of material of different species identi-fied as Synelmis klatti in the course of the analysis of Licher & Westheide 1994 in-duced them to reestablish the old generic name. The present paper emends the diagnosis of Glyphohesione, redescribes the European G. klatti and describes the eastern North American Glyphohesione longocirrata, new species. Materials and Methods For light microscopical preparations the fixed specimens (stored in 70% ethanol) were transferred into glycerine. Observations, drawings, and measurements were made by means of a LEITZ Diaplan microscope with interference-contrast optics and a camera lucida. For SEM investigations one speci-men was dehydrated and critical-point dried with carbon dioxide. After sputtering with gold, it was analyzed with a JEOL JSM 820.