bartsch: classification of helicinidae 643 prominent, the lateral veins slender, 8 or 9 on each side, ascending at a wide angle, nearly straight, laxly anastomosed near the margin; fruit subglobose, 4.5 cm. in diameter, terminal, solitary, subsessile, the pericarp very thick; seeds (very immature) numerous. Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 678301, collected in the vicinity of Cana, Panama, altitude 1350 meters, in 1908, by R. S. Williams (no. 814). A relative of Genipa americana, apparently, but very different in the rounded apex of the leaves and rounded, obovate stipules. ZOOLOGY. — Classification of the Philippine operculate land shells of the family Helicinidae, with a synopsis of the species and subspecies of the genus Geophorus.^ Paul Bartsch, National Museum. The constant demand for determinations of Philippine land shells frequently makes it necessary to lay aside monographic work on the mollusks of these islands, in order to straighten out the nomenclature of a group wholly different from the one upon which the writer may be engaged. This is true in the present instance. Several sendings of Helicina, in the old sense of that term, have made it necessary to subject the whole group, which is a rather large one, to critical examination. It is believed that the synopsis of the superspecific groups and the keys and brief comments on the species and subspecies of the largest genus of the family in the islands, Geophorus, will prove helpful in classifying material. The genus Geophorus is not a difficult one. The greatest trouble in the past appears to have been the assigning of too many forms to one name, for frequently in the past authors have assigned to one species specimens which we now know belong to different genera. A very careful inventory of all the characters should enable anyone readily to place any of the known forms under its proper name by the use of the appended keys and critical remarks. In the preparation of this paper, I have been particularly fortu-nate in having in the National Museum collections a set of Sow-erby's cotypes collected in the Philippine Islands by Hugh Cum-ing, and also a set of von Mollendorff's Philippine Island shells, ' Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.