( 30G ) XXII. — Observations on the Natural History and Economy of various Insects nffccting the T^tr^iip Crojjs, including the White Cahlmge-Butterflies, the Turnip-seed Weevil, cj-c. By John Curtis, F.L.S., Corresponding Member of the Impe-rial and Royal Georgofili Society of Florence, &c. Paper IV. Cabbage and Turnip Butterflies. Although some caterpillars will feed upon a great variety of plants, for the most part they are confined to a few, and those are generally of the same natural order, that is to say, they are kindred species. This is the case with the Cabbage-Butterflies,* whose caterpillars not only frequently completely destroy that useful vegetable in the cottager's garden, but they live to a great and often to a mischievous extent upon turnips, rape, 6cc., as will be shown in the sequel. There are three species of these Butterflies, belonging to the Order Lepidoptera, and to a Family called Papilionidje, which embraces all butterflies, amounting in Britain to about eighty species, f forming the Linna^an Genus Papilio ; but the White Cabbage-Butterflies and two or three others have been separated by modern naturalists, and are now distinguished as the Genus Pontia.J The largest of these is abundant in gardens, turnip-fields, and road-sides, where it is seen on the wing from the middle of May to October : common as it is, and familiar as every child is with the White Cabbage-Butterfly, how few persons comparatively are acquainted with its origin and transformations! Its history will therefore prove in-teresting and instructive ; but before we proceed to its economy, it will be necessary to describe it, in order to distinguish it from the two others alluded to. From the mischief the Caterpillars occasion to the cabbages it is called 1. P. Brassicac, Linn., or the White Cabbage-Butterfly. The male (fig. 1) is white above, the head and thorax are clothed with soft yellowish hairs ; the two horns are spotted with black, and the club is black above and ochraceous beneath ; the upper wings have black tips in the form of a crescent ; the interior wings have a blackish spot on the upper edge ; the body is black ; the wings expand 2J inches ; the female is larger, being about 3 inches across, and is distinguished by two large black spots on the upper wings, and a freckled splash upon the inferior margin ; * P. rapes departs from this rule ; for it has been found feeding upon garden-flowers which are not cruciferous, and even upon the weeping-wiUow. t Curtis's Guide, Genera 763-780. % Curtis's Brit. Ent., fol. and pi. 48.