PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 69, XO. 4, DECEMBER, 1967 307 SOME PSOCOPTERA FROM PLUMAGE OF BIRDS Edward L. Mockford, Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois 6176 !''■ Although psocids have been recorded on a number of instances from the fur of wild and domestic mammals (literature reviewed by Pearman, 1960), and from the nests of birds (Hicks, 1959, Rapp, 1961, Wlodarczyk, 1963), there are apparently no records of these insects from the plumage of living birds. The following records are of considerable interest from a bio-geographic point of view. At least for smaller psocids, it appears that phoresy on birds offers a means of dispersal over long distances and lacks the formidable difficulties presented by wafting in the open air. The plumage of a bird offers a constant warm temperature, probably high relative humidity, and perhaps a food supply in the form of skin scurf and other debris. The migratory habits of many birds, including the emberizine finches of the present records, assure that any insect riding the plu-mage of one of these birds with some regularity will have access for colonization to the terrestrial areas along the bird's migration route. Thus, if the insect fails to become established in a particular area once, it has many more chances. The fairly common occurrence of wandering or being blown out of its usual migratory course may result in the bird's finding its way across a vast water area to an island or a continent new to it. Whereas the bird may have little chance of establishing its species in the new area, the insects riding its plumage, especially the parthenogenetic ones, may have a much greater chance. In this connection, it is interesting to note that three of the four psocid species of the present records have very wide distributions involving more than one continent even when we ignore the obvious records of transport in human commerce. Whereas psocids are doubtless most likely to crawl onto birds at the nest, three of the present records were made outside of the nesting seasons of the birds involved, and strongly suggest that psocids may crawl onto birds from a feeding area or a roosting area. The remarks of Pearman ( 1960 ) concerning the bearing of mammal-and mammal-lair inhabiting psocids on the evolution of the Mallo-phaga apply equally to birds. Information on ranges of the birds involved is taken from Delacour (1947) and Vaurie (1959, 1965). The specimens were received from the Entomology Research Divi-sion of the United States Department of Agriculture, whence they were sent by Dr. H. Elliott McClure of the Migratory Animal Path-^ Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges — Editor.