621 SOME SOUTH INDIAN COCCIDS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE, (a) BY T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyae, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Ag. Government Entomologist, Madras. Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore. The economic importance of Coccidas (scale insects and mealy bugs^ needs no special mention — especially in tropical countries. Though this is well known in tropical America, Australia and South Africa, the fact is not so well realised in India. The causes that contribute to this paucity of oiir knowledge regarding this group of insects are many. In the first place these insects have a partiality for fruit trees, garden shrubs, and hot house plants, and in India there is hardly anything compared to the extensive fruit cultivation and horticulture found in those countries. Except on the hill ranges where some attempt is nowadays being made to grow fruits, and around some big cities where nursery men ply their trade, there is nothing worth the name of fruit culture any-where in the plains ; this is specially the case in South India. Secondly, though several species of Coccids are found in India, except in a few cases damage to the ordinary cultivated crops by these insects is very little, compared to others like beetles and caterpillars with which agriculturists are more familiar. But nowadays, however, there is a tendency and desire on the part of both European settlers and Indian landlords in different parts of India to take to gardening and fruit culture in addition to the time-honoured custom of growing only the staple food and industrial crops. To these prospective gardeners and orchardists a knowledge of the Coccids of the country — especially of those forms which are of some economic importance — will, I believe, be of some use and it is chiefly with this idea of contributing a little in this direction that this paper is read. In the course of a systematic study of the species of this in-teresting group of insects found in South India, I have had chances of noting some forms which, judging from their present status, bid fair to play some prominent part as insects of economic importance in course of time. At present most of the species are found confined to various wild trees and shrubs, and some of the well-known fruit pests of the group so far known in the country have not as yet spread sufiiciently to attract any serious attention. (a). This is a paper which was read at the Indian Science Congress,-Lahore, in January 1918.