PROC. ENTOMOL. SOC. WASH. 107(1), 2005. pp. 55-63 FOSSIL TRIGONALIDAE AND VESPIDAE (HYMENOPTERA) IN BALTIC AMBER George Poinar, Jr. Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2907, U.S.A. (email: [email protected]) Abstract. — A fossil trigonalid (Trigonalidae: Hymenoptera), Eotrigonalis balticus Poin-ar, n, gen., n. sp., and a fossil vespid, Palaeovespa socialis Poinar, n. sp., are described from Eocene Baltic amber. Eotrigonalis balticus is a large, robust, heavily armored spe-cies, which could have parasitized members of the Vespidae. It can be separated from all other members of the family by the presence of large scutellar horns. Palaeovespa socialis has the diagnostic characters of members of the subfamily Vespinae and was probably eusocial. It differs from extant vespines by the shape of the clypeus, the presence of interparapsidal furrows and venational characters. Key Words: Trigonalidae, Eotrigonalis baltica, Vespidae, Vespinae, Palaeovespa soci-alis, Baltic amber The Trigonalidae are a monophyletic group of enigmatic parasitic wasps com-prising some 16 genera worldwide. They have unique morphological characters as well as a complex life history involving both a carrier and a developmental host (Carmean 1991, Carmean and Kimsey 1998, Weinstein and Austin 1991). Fossil trigonalids are rare (Carpenter 1992, Ras-nitsyn and Quicke 2002) and the present study describes a new genus and species from Baltic amber. Social wasps belonging to the subfamily Vespinae of the family Vespidae are not commonly fossilized in amber (Carpenter 1992, Rasnitsyn and Quicke 2002) and the present study describes a new species in Baltic amber closely related to extant mem-bers of the genus Vespula L. The fossil ves-pid is a potential developmental host for the Baltic amber trigonalid. Materials and Methods The pieces of Baltic amber containing the trigonalid and vespid originated from the Kalinigrad region in Russia. Both pieces were recut and repolished for study. The fi-nal piece containing the trigonalid fossil weighed 1.6 grams, was 20 mm long, 13 mm wide and 5 mm deep. The piece con-taining the vespid fossil weighed 2.6 grams, was 20 mm long, 19 mm wide and 1 1 mm in depth. Baltic amber has been dated at — 40 million years (Eocene) [for a discus-sion of the age of these deposits, see Poinar (1992) and Larsson (1978)]. Observations and photographs were made with a Nikon Optiphot microscope and a Nikon SMZ-lOX stereoscopic microscope at magnifi-cations of X800. Terminology follows that presented by Huber and Sharkey (1993), Mason (1993). Brothers and Finnamore (1993) and Duncan (1939) with some tra-ditional venation terminology as used by Michener et al. (1994). All measurements are in millimeters unless otherwise noted. Trigonalidae Cresson, I SS7 The Baltic fossil possessed ihc rollowing characters, which are diaanostic tor the



Fossil trigonalidae and vespidae (Hymenoptera) in baltic amber

George Poinar Jr.
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107: 55-63 (2005)

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