505 NOTES UPON THE PLUMAGE OF THE ADULT MALES IN CERTAIN SPECIES OF THE GENUS MALURUS. " By A. J. North, F.L.S. The late Mr. Gould speaking of the genus Malurus in his ' Handbook to the Birds of Australia,' says — " The members of this genus are among the most beautiful of our Australian birds. Their gay attire, however, is only assumed during the pairing-season, and is retained for a very short period, after which the sexes are alike in colouring." Further on speaking of Malurus cyaneus, "During the months of winter it associates in small troops of from six to eight in number (probably the brood of a single pair), which con-tinually traverse the district in which they were bred. At this period of the year the adult males throw off their fine livery, and the plumage of the sexes becomes so near alike that a minute examination is requisite to distinguish them."* Relative to the above statements that the males of the genus Malurus only assume their full plumage during the pairing season, and that the adult males throw off their fine livery in winter and can hardly be dis-tinguished from the females, Gould is decidedly in error. During the last three or four years I have paid particular atten-tion to the subject, and find that as regards Malurus cyaneus the results of my observations are that after the male has once assumed its fully adult plumage, it always retains that phase, and that the fully adult male is as brilliant in its colouring during the winter months as it is in spring and summer. The winter just jjast is well known to have been one of the coldest we have experienced for several years, yet on reference to my note-book I find that from the 25th of May until the middle of August I have frequently observed the fully plumaged males of M. cyaneus in the piiblic * Gould, Handbk. Bds. Austr., Vol, I., pp. 317-8.