THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS SCIENCE BULLETIN Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 91-128 September 17, 1976 Field Observations on Rare or Little Known Mainland Anoles Henry S. Fitch,* Alice F. Echelle and Anthony A. Echelle** TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Introduction 92 Acknowledgments 94 Methods and Materials 94 Accounts of Species 100 The Mexican Species 100 The Central American Species 113 The South American Species 120 Discussion 125 Literature Cited 127 ABSTRACT Species of mainland anoles that have remained little known because of rarity, restric-tion to remarkably small geographic areas, inaccessibility of range or habitat, or similarity to a commoner species, include Anolis atiisolepis, A. cuprinus, A. dunni, A. gadovii, A. megapholidotus, A. mtcrolepidotus , A. parvicirculata , A. subocularis and A. taylori in Mex-ico; A. aquaticus, A. attenuatus, A. biscutiger, A. carpenteri, A. dolljusianus , A. haguei, A. insignis, and A. rodriguezi in Central America, and A. aequatorialis, A. chloris, A. gem-mosus, A. maculiventris, A. nigrolineattts, A. peraccae and A. princeps in Ecuador. Field observations on each of these species are presented. Morphological traits (mean adult size and sexual dimorphism, weight, size and color of dewlap, relative lengths of tails and limbs) and behavioral and ecological traits (temperature preferenda, height and diameter of perch, season of egg-laying, display-activity patterns) are listed and discussed. In the past, several of the species have been considered subspecies of other species. In each instance status is discussed and evidence for full specific status is presented. Lack of close ecological counterparts between Mexico, Central America and Ecuador is demon-strated. The Ecuadorian series of species tends to arboreal habits, large size, and rela-tively long tails. The Mexican species tend to terrestrial habits, small size, and marked sexual dimorphism, with males usually larger than females. * Division of Biological Sciences, University of ** Department of Biology, Baylor University, Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. Waco, Texas.