552 NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF SNAKES MADE IN THE NILGIRI HILLS AND THE ADJACENT WYNAAD. Bi LlEUT.-CoLONEL F. WaLL, I.M.S., C.M.G., C.M.Z.S., F.L.S. . (With Diagrams and Maps.) A period of sick leave lasting in all for four months in 1917, and spent in the Nilgiris gave me a great opportunity for studying the snakes of that locality, and the interesting plateau known locally as the Nilgiri-Wynaad. My thanks are due to the many Planters around who were kind enough to assist me in collecting, and without whose aid I would have obtained but little. I am indebted to the following gentlemen : Mr, J. B, Vernede of Rookery Estate, Mr. L, Gerard Rogers of Adderley, Mr. C. Vernede of Hill Grove, Mr. C. Hercus of Glen-dale, Mr. A. K. Weld-Downing of Frith Hall, Mr. R. S. Hunter of Pilloor, Mr. G. Oakes of Kalhatti, Mr. W. B. de Courcy of Liddelsdale, Mr. J. H. Wapshare of Hope, Mr. F. W. F. Fletcher of Rockwcod, Mr. J. E. Bisset of Mayfield, and Mr. V. W. G. Bisset of Wentworth. The first six of these gentlemen are on estates on the Eastern slopes of the Nilgiri Plateau. ]\fr. Oakes is in the middle of the plateau, and Mr. de Courcy on the north-west confines overlooking the Wjmaad. The last four gentlemen have estates in the Nilgiri-Wynaad, a locality politically in the Nilgiris, but zoo-geographically part of the Wynaad. The terrain is a complicated mass of mountain ranges that calls for special remarks. The Gazetteer of India says of the Nilgiris : " It consists of two well marked divisions : the high steep sided plateau formed by the junction of the Eastern and Western Ghats as they run southwards down the two opposite sides of the Indian Peninsula ; and lower area adjoining, and geographically forming part of, the Malabar-Wynaad. The plateau, which is divided into the two taluJhS of Ootacamund and Coonoor, averages 6,500 feet above sea-level, and several of its peaks run up to over 8,000 feet. The lower area adjoining the Wynaad forms the third, or Gudalur, taluk, and is often called the South-East Wynaad. It is only 2,000 to 3,000 feet above the sea, is more level than the plateau, and is covered for the most part with thick forest. * * * Along the south-western edge of the plateau runs a line of bold hills called the Kundahs, several of the peaks in which are over 8,000 feet in height. * * * The Western Ghats join the Eastern Ghats in the high plateau of the Nilgiris." " The Wynaad consists of a table land 60 miles by 30 miles, lying amid the Ghats at the average height of 3,000 feet above sea level.