\y B R E V I O R A Mesceoain of CoiMparative Zoolog; Cambridge, Mass. February 25, 1966 Number 230 SOUTH AMERICAN ANGLES : AN0LI8 BIPORCATUS AND ANOLIS FKASERI (SAURIA, IGUANIDAE) COMPARED By Ernest E. Williams INTRODUCTION Confusion of the two species Anolis biporcatus AViegmann 1834 and Anolis fraseri Giinther 1859 first occurred in the original description of A. fraseri by Giinther. One of the syntypes of Anolis fraseri Giinther 1859 from western Ecuador was in fact a specimen of Anolis biporcatus Wiegmann 1834, a species first described from Mexico. Very unfortunately, it was this syntype which was sent to Paris for examination and which Bocoi'.rt (1873, pi. 15, fig. 12) figured as A. fraseri. The confusion of these two species which began thus has continued till the present. Boulenger (1885) did, indeed, correct Giinther 's error and remove the biporcatus specimen from the syntype series, placing it in "copii" (=copei Bocourt 1873, a synonym of biporcatus^) . He was, however, apparently (pnte convinced that "copii" and fraseri were closely related; he placed them side by side in his catalogue and a collation of his two descriptions shoAvs only minor differences. This belief in a close relationship continues to the present day: L. C. Stuart (1955) in discussing the affinities of Central American biporceitus has suggested that fraseri is the South American representative of biporcatus. A contrary view that A. biporcatus and A. fraseri are not at all close is also currently held. This opinion is implicit in Dunn's 1937 discussion of mainland giant anoles of the latifrous group. A. fraseri is placed with these, and biporcatus or its synonym copei goes quite unmentioned. Most recently a more explicit denial of close relationship has been propounded : R. Etheridge. 1 See Stuart (1948) for discussion of tlie usage of tlie name biporcatiif! Wiegmann ratlier than copei Bocourt. The question is one of the identity of the Berlin type of biporcatus.