BREVIORA Mmsenam of Comparative Zoology Cambridge, Mass. 31 March, 1967 Number 262 A PHYLOGENETiC SURVEY OF MOLLUSCAN SHELL MATRIX PROTEINS By Michael T. Ghiselin Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, Massachusetts Egon T. Degens and Derek W. Spencer The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts and Robert H. Parker Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, Massachusetts INTRODUCTION Recent advances in biochemistry and cytology have vastly in-creased the availability of structures suited for phylogenetic re-search. Diverse and complicated chemical structures, such as cyto-chrome c (Margoliash and Smith, 1964) and chromosomes (Spen-cer, 1949), are amenable to a type of analysis based on formal properties analogous to that of traditional comparative anatomy. The growth of evolutionary biology has recently brought about a subtle, yet pervasive and fundamental, revolution in the aims and methods of systematics. The development of new techniques based on an understanding of the causes of evolution has so far been most pronounced in the study of species and speciation, but is being extended to higher levels (Cain, ed., 1959; Bock, 1959, 1960). The present work is an attempt to continue these trends, em-ploying a new type of evidence made available by improved methods 1 Contribution No. 91 from the Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, and Contribution No. 1834 from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.