OCCASIONAL PAPERS APR 1 1989 of the ^D MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORl?^^ The University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas NUMBER 128, PAGES 1-25 MARCH 30,1989 PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF SEVERAL SUBFOSSIL ANSERIFORMES OF NEW ZEALAND By Bradley C. Livezey' Three genera of waterfowl (Anseriformes) are known only from subfossil remains from New Zealand (Oliver 1955, Howard 1964): Cnemiornis Owen 1866, Euryanas Oliver 1930, and Pachyanas Oliver 1955. The first two are represented by numerous well-preserved elements, and Cnemiornis is re-nowned for its radical morphological modifications related to flightlessness. Pachyanas chathamica is represented by relatively few skeletal elements (Oliver, 1955) and is not discussed here; the genus currently is under study independently by R. J. Scarlett (pers. comm.) and P. R. Millener (pers. comm.). With the exception oi Cnemiornis, which has a comparatively long history of taxonomic reclassification and description, these subfossil endem-ics have received little attention from avian systematists since their original description. A phylogenetic analysis of Recent anseriform genera (Livezey, 1986), based largely on comparative osteology, permitted a reappraisal of the relationships and classification of these endemic waterfowl. In this paper I: (1) present analyses of characters of Cnemiornis, Euryanas, and the extinct New Zealand swan Cygnus sumnerensis; (2) construct phylogenetic trees for these groups based on these characters; (3) propose a revised classification of these taxa; and (4) discuss selected evolutionary and biogeographic implica-tions of these findings. 'Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 -2454 U.S.A.