PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM FOR THE YEAR 1S91. Volume XIV. A CATALOGUE OF THE FRESH-WATER FISHES OF SOUTH AMERICA BY Carl H. Eigenmann and Rosa S. Eigenmann. The present paper is an enumeration of the fishes so far recorded from the streams and lakes of South America, with a few preliminary remarks on the extent, peculiarity, and origin of the fauna an<l the division of the ueotropics into provinces. An attempt has been made to include those marine forms which have been found in the rivers beyond brackish water and to exclude those which probably enter fresh waters, bnt have not actually been found in any streams. Central American species are not enumerated. The aim being to present a synopsis of what has been accomplished rather than a list of the species which in our estimation are valid, all the doubtful species are enumerated and the synonyms of each species are given. All the names given to South American fishes prior to 1890 are therefore to be found here. We have endeavored to adopt and incorporate the results of the latest investigations, chiefly those of Giinther, Gill, Cope, Boulenger, Steindachner, and Eigenmann and Eigenmann. Since works of a re-visionary character on South American fishes are few, and many of the species have been recorded but once, many changes in the present list will doubtless become necessary. We have critically reviewed about half of the species enumerated. (See bibliography.) This catalogue was intended to accompany a Catalogue of the Fresh-water Fishes of North America by Dr. D. S. Jordan. Unavoidable circumstances prevented us from completing it as originally planned,, and it was thought best to give it the present form. We take pleasure in expressing out thanks to Dr. Theodore Gill for valuable suggestions. Proceedings National Museum, Vol. XIV— No. 842.