JOURNAL Jlr\a gork €lntoraoIogirHl Horiptg* \rol. V. DECEMBER, 1897. No. 4. AN ATTEMPT TO CLASSIFY THE HOLARCTIC LEPIDOPTERA BY MEANS OF THE SPE-CIALIZATION OF THE WINGS. PART I.— THE DAY-BUTTERFLIES. By A. Radcliffe Grote, A.M. A. Forewings with vein IX present PAPILIONIDES. a I. Vein IV2 of primaries inclines to Cubitus PARNASSIID^. a2. Vein IVi of forewings from Radius Parnassiin^. d2. Vein IVi of forewings from crossvein Thaidin^e. a I. Vein IV2 of primaries placed centrally PAPILIONID^. B. Forewings with vein IX wanting HESPERIADES. bl. Radial veins on primaries not arising sej^arately, or if separate less than five in number. b2. Vein III4 to costa before apex. h^. Wings not angulate. b4. Vein IV2 not central on both wings PIERID^. b5. Vein IIIi arising from above cell PieriNjB. b5. Vein IIIi arising beyond cell LEPTiDiiNiE. b2. Vein III4 to external margin below apex NYMPHALID^E. b6. Vein II absorbed by HI to junction with I on secondaries N YMPHALlNiE b6. Vein II absorbed by III to a varying point but always before junction with I Argynnin^. b2. Vein III4 to apex. by. Vein VIII not marked on primaries AGAPETID^, b8. Crossvein of secondaries joins Cubitus PARARGiNiB. b8. Crossvein of secondaries joins veiA ^Y^ AgafetiNjE, b3. Wings angulate />>»...... LIBYTHEID^. by. Vein VIII marked on primaries. bg. Vein III 2 beyond extremity of cell LIMNADID^. bg. Vein III2 before extremity of cell NEMEOBIID^. b4. Vein IV2 central on both wings. bio. Vein I of hind wings developed RIODINID^. bio. Vein I of hind wings absent LYCyENIDiE. b II. Vein IVi of primaries directly joining Radius THECLlNiE. b II. Vein IVi of primaries indirectly joining Radius . . . Lycenin^e.