Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 37(4), 1983, 281-288 SEASONAL PHENOLOGY OF BATTUS PHILENOR (L.) (PAPILIONIDAE) IN CALIFORNIA 1 S. R. Sims 2 and A. M. Shapiro Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California 95616 ABSTRACT. The pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor (L.), has a flight season extending over more than nine months (February to November) in central Cali- fornia. The major flight occurs primarily in April and is derived from overwintering pupae in diapause. This flight is followed by a partial second generation, consisting of 9-39% non-diapause first generation offspring. A subsequent temporally scattered flight, representing a third generation, is partially derived from earlier season diapausers emerg- ing in summer and fall. Under field conditions, pupal diapause intensity progressively declines through fall and early winter. Pupal photoperiod response and diapause end by mid-winter. There is no sex ratio distortion in either second brood or summer-fall emer- gers. Spring field emergence of males tends to precede females, suggesting differences in relative rates of post-diapause development. A necessary step towards an understanding of the population dy- namics and distribution of Lepidoptera is to examine their seasonal phenology or timing of recurring periods of activity and dormancy in relation to key environmental factors. For species with a diapause phase, the appropriate timing of the onset, maintenance, and termination of diapause, followed by postdiapause development and resumption of reproductive activity is vital to the successful adaptation to their en- vironment. The pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor (L.), has an extended flight season in central California with adult activity recorded from February to November (Opler & Langston, 1968; Shapiro, 1974). Little, however, is known about how the flight season is related to the population dy- namics and pupal diapause of this species. Shapiro (1975) suggested that the long flight season and apparent multivoltinism results from reproduction by a non-diapause fraction of each generation. Thus, each generation may be a mixture of both continuous developers and indi- viduals that undergo an aestivo-hibernal pupal diapause (Masaki, 1980) and emerge the following spring. In this paper we examine the phenological "strategy" or timing of the active and diapause states of philenor as they relate to the annual periodicity and variability of the central California habitats. Specifi- cally, we estimate the number, timing, and derivation of annual broods and determine when diapause terminates under field conditions. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5026. Present address: University of Florida AREC, 18905 SW 280th St., Homestead, Florida 33031.



Seasonal phenology of Battus philenor (L.) (Papilionidae) in California

S R Sims and A M Shapiro
Journal of The Lepidopterists' Society 37: 281-288 (1984)

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