MALACOLOGIA, 1988, 29(1): 7-19
A CATALOG OF THE TYPE SPECIMENS OF RECENT CEPHALOPODA
DESCRIBED BY S. STILLMAN BERRY
Michael J. Sweeney 1 , Clyde F. E. Roper' & F. G. Hochberg 2
The primary type specimens of Recent cephalopods described by S Stillman Berry
(1887-1984) have been traced and the museums in which they are deposited verified.
Specimen data, collection data and museum catalog numbers are given for all specimens.
Specimens known to be no longer extant and those types that could not be located are noted.
A bibliography of Berry's cephalopod publications is included
Key words: cephalopods, type specimens, museum(s), collections.
S. Stillman Berry's contributions to cepha-
lopod systematics rank as the most important
of any of the past American teuthologists.
Berry studied cephalopods and other mol-
lusks for over 75 years. While publishing 47
papers on cephalopods, he introduced 105
new names, 70 of which were new species.
This is a significant contribution to cepha-
lopod systematics for someone never em-
ployed for research at an academic institu-
tion! Brookshire (1984), Coan (1984) and
Roper (1984) provided biographies of S. Still-
man Berry, and Sweeney & Roper (1984)
listed all zoological taxa described by Berry.
The cephalopod types described by Berry
were deposited in several museums as well
as his own home, a virtual museum itself. The
extent and physical condition of many of the
type specimens kept in his home were un-
known prior to his death, because during his
lifetime he accumulated a huge collection of
specimens that eventually occupied nearly
every available space in his 17-room house,
from cellar to attic and even in his garden
shed. While a few types were kept in a small,
alligator leather satchel next to the front door
("in case of fire"), most were scattered among
the general collection. Curatorial attention to
the collections became inconsistent and infre-
quent as the collections grew and with Berry's
generally fragile health. With the bequest of
the Berry cephalopod collection to the Na-
tional Museum of Natural History, a thorough
search for type material produced a number
of specimens for which Berry had designated
no museum depository.
This paper summarizes the status of Ber-
ry's Recent cephalopod type material from his
collection as well as from all known museum
repositories. The literature was reviewed to
determine the number and location of type
specimens designated by Berry. The muse-
ums that he published as recipients for his
types were contacted to verify deposition.
While examining the literature, several
problems arose concerning the type status
and designation of specimens from Berry's
collection. In several cases, paratypes were
not listed in the original publication but were in
subsequent papers. In other cases, no para-
types were listed in print but specimens were
found labeled as such in Berry's handwriting.
We were fortunate to have Berry's card cata-
log that listed specimen data, collecting data,
type status and the date of examination for all
specimens. Inconsistencies in type status
from published vs. specimen information
were resolved on an individual basis. Ques-
tions concerning interpretations of the Inter-
national Code of Zoological Nomenclature
(ICZN, 1985) were taken to Dr. F. M. Bayer,
National Museum of Natural History, who is a
U.S. member of the International Commission
on Zoological Nomenclature.
'Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution Washington DC
20560. U SA
department of Invertebrate Zoology, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, 2559 Puesta del Sol Road Santa Barbara
CA 93105, USA.